Primer on the Commission on Appointments

What is the Commission on Appointments?

The Commission on Appointments (CA) is a constitutional body of the Congress of the Philippines as provided by the Constitution. It is an independent body separate and distinct from the Legislature, although its membership is confined to members of Congress.

It confirms certain appointments made by the President of the Philippines. Article VII, Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution reads:

"The President shall nominate and, with the consent of the Commission on Appointments, appoint the heads of the executive departments, ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, or officers of the armed forces from the rank of colonel or naval captain, and other officers whose appointments are vested in him in this Constitution. He shall also appoint all other officers of the Government whose appointments are not otherwise provided for by law, and those whom he may be authorized by law to appoint. The Congress may, by law, vest the appointment of other officers lower in rank in the President alone, in the courts, or in the heads of departments, agencies, commissions, or boards.

How does the CA work?

The CA does not curtail the Presidents appointing authority but serves as a check against its abuse. It assures that the President has exercised the power to appoint wisely, by appointing only those who are fit and qualified. To this end, the Rules of the Commission's Statement of Policy provides that,'The Commission on Appointments hereby declares as its policy that the powers vested in it by the Constitution shall be discharged with only one impelling motive, which is the efficient and harmonious functioning of the government.

'Cognizant of the fact that the power of appointment is vested in the President of the Philippines, and that the President, in the exercise of that power, had carefully considered the fitness and qualifications of nominees or appointees, the Commission on Appointments shall accord the nomination or appointment weight and respect, to the end that all doubts should be resolved in favor of approval or confirmation.

'On the other hand, the Commission, being part of our republican system of checks and balances, shall act as a restraint against abuse of the appointing authority, to the end that the power of disapproval should be exercised to protect and enhance the public interest.'

*Pimentel Jr. vs. Ermita (G.R. No 164978; 472 SCRA 587)

The Commission's function forms part of the very delicate mechanism of checks and balances established by the Constitution to ensure that the coordinate departments of the government will function in a way that will be most conducive to the public welfare.

Who are the members of the CA? 

The Commission on Appointments is composed of the Senate President as the ex-officio Chairman, with twelve Senators and twelve members of the House of Representatives. Members from each House of Congress are elected based on proportional representation from the political parties and parties or organizations registered under the party-list system represented. The Chairman of the Commission shall vote only in case of a tie. It shall act on all appointments submitted within thirty session days of Congress. It shall be governed by a majority vote of all members.

However, the appointments of all judges and the Ombudsman shall not be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. Instead, they are recommended by the Judicial and Bar Council, and the President shall select from the recommendations.


The following are the members of the Commission which is headed by:

CHAIRMAN HON. JUAN PONCE ENRILE

President of the Senate, (PMP)

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5552 - 53

Direct Lines: (632) 552-6691 / (63) 552-6786

Telefax No.: (632) 552-6690

Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Website: www.jpenrile.com

VICE-CHAIRMAN HON. ROILO S. GOLEZ

Representative, (LP)

Paranaque City, 2nd District

Tel. Nos.:931-5001 loc.

Rm. SWA-418,

MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER HON. RODOLFO W. ANTONINO

Representative,

Nueva Ecija, 4th District

Chairman, Committee on Rules and Resolutions

Phone: 931-5001 local 7328, 9316042

Rm. N - 109, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

MINORITY FLOOR LEADER ALAN PETER "COMPAÑERO" S. CAYETANO

Senator, (NP)

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5518 / 5520

Telefax No.: (632) 832-5281

Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 

ASST. MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER HON. FRANKLIN M. DRILON

Senator, (LP)

Chairman, Committee on Budget and Management

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 8592 / 8594 - 95

Direct Lines: (632) 659-5841 / (632) 659-7479

Telefax No.: (632) 659-5581

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ASST. MAJORITY FLOOR LEADER HON. ROSENDO S. LABADLABAD

Representative, (LP)

Zamboanga del Norte, 2nd District

Chairman, Committee on Accounts and

Government Corporation & other Offices

Phone: 931-5001 local 7363, 9316714

Rm. N - 404, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

ASST. MINORITY FLOOR LEADER JOKER P. ARROYO

Senator, (Independent)

Chairman, Committee on Justice, Judicial and Bar Council

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5567 / 5568

Direct Lines: (632) 552-6730 / (632) 812-1323

Telefax No.: (632) 552-6790

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ASST. MINORITY FLOOR LEADER HON. SIMEON A. DATUMANONG

Representative, (LAKAS KAMPI)

Maguindanao, Lone District

Phone: 931-5001 local 7325, 9316442

Rm. N - 106, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

SENATE

HON. EDGARDO J. ANGARA

SENATOR, (LDP)

Chairman, Committee on Education, Culture and Sports

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5570-72 / 5593

Direct Lines: (632) 552-6779 / (632) 552-6852

Telefax: No.: (632) 552-6601 loc. 5572

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Website: www.edangara.com

 

HON. JINGGOY EJERCITO ESTRADA

SENATOR, (PMP)

Chairman, Committee on Constitutional Commission and Offices

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 2521 - 24

Telefax Nos.: 552-6685

Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

Website: www.senjinggoyestrada.com

 

HON. FRANCIS "CHIZ" G. ESCUDERO

SENATOR, (Independent)

Chairman, Committee on Environment and Natural Resources

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 6537 / 6539 / 6540 - 41

Direct Lines: (632) 833-5034

Telefax No.: (632) 833-8765

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Website: www.chizescudero.com

 

HON. PANFILO M. LACSON

SENATOR, (GO-UNO)

Chairman, Committee on Agrarian Reform

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 70 loc. 5534/5585

Direct Line: (632)552-6786

Telefax No.: (632) 834-6590

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Website: www.pinglacson.com.ph

 

HON. SERGIO R. OSMEÑA III

SENATOR

Chairman, Committee on Energy

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 8525-26

Email: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it

 

HON. RALPH G. RECTO

SENATOR, (LP)

Chairman, Committee on Finance

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 8543-44 /8546-47

Direct Lines: (632) 659-5756 / (632) 804-0749

Telefax Nos.: (632) 659-5756 / (632) 804-0749

 

HON. RAMON "BONG" REVILLA, JR

SENATOR, (LAKAS-KAMPI)

Chairman, Committee on Health

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5521-23 / 5577 / 5500

Direct Line: (632) 552-6776

Telefax No.: (632) 552-6698

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HON. MIRIAM DEFENSOR SANTIAGO

SENATOR, (PRP)

Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 5562 / 5590

Direct Lines: (632) 552-6692 / (632) 552-6693

Telefax No.: (632) 552-6692

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Website: www.miriam.com.ph

 

HON. VICENTE C. SOTTO III

SENATOR, (NPC)

Chairman, Committee on Interior and Local Government

Trunk Lines: (632) 552-6601 to 99 loc. 6516 / 6502 / 6504

Direct Line: (632) 552-6732 / (632) 552-6748

Fax No.: (632) 552-6747

 

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

HON. ANTONIO C. ALVAREZ

Representative, (LAKAS-KAMPI)

Palawan, 1st District

Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Communications

Phone: 931-5001 local 7372, 9315469

Rm. N - 413, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. FERJENEL G. BIRON

Representative, (NP)

Iloilo, 4th District

Chairman, Committee on Trade and Industry

Rm. SWA - 423, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. ANTONIO A. DEL ROSARIO

Representative, (LP)

Capiz, 1st District

Chairman, Committee on National Defense

Phone: 931-5001 local 7394, 9316733

Rm. N - 215, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. REX GATCHALIAN

Representative, (NPC)

Valenzuela City, 1st District

Chairman, Committee on Tourism and Economic Development

Phone: 931-5001 local 7270, 9317327

Rm. S - 209, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. ERINEO S. MALIKSI

Representative, (LP)

Cavite, 3rd District

Chairman, Committee on Agriculture & Food and

Committee on Ethics

Rm. SWA - 309, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. RODANTE D. MARCOLETA

Sectoral Representative, (Alagad Party List)

Chairman, Committee on Science and Technology

Phone: 931-5001 local 7266, 9315254

Rm. S - 205, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. PEDRO P. ROMUALDO

Representative, LAKAS-KAMPI

Camiguin, Lone District

Chairman, Committee on Public Works and Highways

Phone: 931-5001 local 7377, 9316067

Rm. N - 418, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

HON. LUIS R. VILLAFUERTE

Representative,

Camarines Sur, 3rd District

Chairman, Committee on Labor, Employment and Social Welfare

Phone: 931-5001 local 7029, 9510066

Rm. RVM - 415, House of Representatives, Quezon City

 

How is the Confirmation Procedure done?

The process of confirmation starts when the President submits the nomination or appointment to the Commission on Appointments. Upon the nominee or appointee's submission of complete documentary requirements mentioned in Section 24, Chapter V of the Rules of the Commission, the Chairman of the Commission immediately refers the nomination or appointment to the corresponding standing committee for consideration.

Within three (3) days from the date of referral, all nominations and/or appointments referred by the Chairman to a standing committee shall be duly publicized in two (2) newspapers of general circulation. A certification to this effect shall be executed and signed by the CA Secretary and shall be transmitted to the chairman of the appropriate committee at any time before it meets to consider the nomination or appointment.

After the lapse of one (1) week from date of publication, the concerned committee then conducts public meetings and hearings to deliberate on the said nomination or appointment. After a thorough deliberation on the merit of each nomination or appointment, the committee makes its recommendations. A committee recommendation for the confirmation of a nomination or appointment is calendared for consideration by the Commission en banc during its plenary session. On the other hand, a nomination or appointment which fails to get the approval of the committee members is subjected to further deliberations.

The Commission rules on all nominations or appointments by a majority vote of all its members. Only members present shall be entitled to vote. The Chairman of the Commission shall not vote, except in case of a tie.

The decision of the Commission in plenary session on the recommendation of a standing committee may be:

(1) favorable in which case the nomination or appointment is confirmed; or

(2) unfavorable in which case the nomination or appointment is either:

(a) rejected;

(b) referred back to the committee level for further deliberations; or

(c) simply left unacted on at the plenary level to be taken up in the next succeeding session of the Commission.

After confirmation, a certification of confirmation is issued by the Commission to the nominee or appointee that he has successfully passed the confirmatory process and that his fitness and qualification for the position have been established and ascertained.

The Commission's action whether resulting in confirmation, rejection or "by-passing" of nominations or appointments shall be reported to the President at the close of a Congressional session.

 

Who has the Power to Appoint?

The POWER of appointment is vested in the President by the Constitution. Under this provision, there are two kinds of presidential appointments:

1. appointments made during the session of Congress or the so-called regular appointments or nominations, and

2. appointments made during the recess of Congress which are also known as ad interim appointments

 

How does the Appointment Process work?

The regular appointments which are contemplated under the first paragraph of Article VII, Section 16 of the 1987 Constitution go through the following stages:

1.            nomination

2.            consent

3.            appointment

4.            acceptance by the nominee

What the President sends to the Commission is just a nomination. After the Commission has given its consent, the President issues the appointment. It is only when the last stage has been completed may the officer concerned take his oath of office.

The second paragraph of Article VII, Sec. 16, of the 1987 Constitution also empowers the President to issue appointments while Congress is not in session. Such appointments are called ad interim appointments, and it goes through the following stages:

1.            appointment

2.            confirmation

An ad interim appointment is permanent in nature and takes effect immediately. Thus, one who was issued an ad interim appointment may immediately enter upon the discharge of his functions.

An ad interim appointment ceases to be valid upon disapproval by the Commission on Appointments or, if not confirmed, until the next adjournment of Congress.

 

Who are the Appointed Officials Subject to Confirmation?

The following are the officials confirmed by the Commission:

 

  • Heads of Executive Departments (Cabinet and Cabinet-rank officials)

  1. Executive Secretary (Kalihim ng Tagapagpaganap)
  2. Secretary of Agrarian Reform (Kalihim ng Repormang Pansakahan)
  3. Secretary of Agriculture (Kalihim ng Pagsasaka)
  4. Secretary of Budget and Management (Kalihim ng Pagbabadyet at Pamamahala)
  5. Secretary of Education (Kalihim ng Edukasyon)
  6. Secretary of Energy (Kalihim ng Enerhiya)
  7. Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources (Kalihim ng Kapaligiran at Likas na Kayamanan)
  8. Secretary of Finance (Kalihim ng Pananalapi)
  9. Secretary of Foreign Affairs (Kalihim ng Ugnayang Panlabas)
  10. Secretary of Health (Kalihim ng Kalusugan)
  11. Secretary of Interior and Local Government (Kalihim ng Interyor at Pamahalaang Lokal)
  12. Secretary of Justice (Kalihim ng Katarungan)
  13. Secretary of Labor and Employment (Kalihim ng Paggawa at Empleyo)
  14. Secretary of National Defense (Kalihim ng Tanggulang Pambansa)
  15. Secretary of Public Works and Highways (Kalihim ng Pagawaing Bayan at Lansangan)
  16. Secretary of Science and Technology (Kalihim ng Agham at Teknolohiya)
  17. Secretary of Social Welfare and Development (Kalihim ng Kagalingang Panlipunan at Pagpapaunlad)
  18. Secretary of Tourism (Kalihim ng Turismo)
  19. Secretary of Trade and Industry (Kalihim ng Kalakalan at Industriya)
  20. Secretary of Transportation and Communications (Kalihim ng Transportasyon at Komunikasyon)
  21. Head of the Presidential Management Staff (Pinuno ng Pampanguluhang Pamamahala)
  22. Presidential Spokesperson (Tagapagsalita ng Pangulo)
  23. Secretary of the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office (Kalihim ng Pampanguluhang Opisina para sa Komunikasyong Pagpapaunlad and Estratehiyang Pagpaplano)
  24. Secretary of the Presidential Communications Operations Office (Kalihim ng Pampanguluhang Opisina para sa Pamamalakad ng Komunikasyon)
  25. Chief Presidential Legal Counsel (Punong Tagapayo ng Pangulo sa Batas)

 

  • Ambassadors, other Public Ministers and Consuls (under the 1987 Constitution and the Foreign Service Act)

  1. Chief Officer I
  2. Chief Officer II
  3. Career Minister
  4. Foreign Service Officer I
  5. Foreign Service Officer II
  6. Ambassadorial Posts and Assignments
  • Officers of the Armed Forces from the rank of Colonel or Naval Captain

a. Air Force , Army and Marine Corps

    1. General
    2. Lieutenant General
    3. Major General
    4. Brigadier General
    5. Colonel

    b. Navy

      1. Admiral
      2. Vice Admiral
      3. Rear Admiral
      4. Commodore
      5. Captain
      • Regular Members of the Judicial and Bar Council

        • Chairman and Commissioners of the Civil Service Commission

        • Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Elections

        • Chairman and Commissioners of the Commission on Audit

        • Members of the Regional and Consultative Commissions

        1. Chairman of the Commission on Higher Education (Tagapangulo ng Komisyon sa Mas Mataas na Edukasyon)
        2. Chairman of the Commission on Information and Communications Technology (Tagapangulo ng Komisyon sa Teknolohiyang Pang-impormasyon at Pangkomunikasyon)
        3. Chairman of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (Tagapangulo ng Sangguniang Pang-koordinasyon sa Pamamahay at Pambayang Pagpapaunlad)
        4. Chairman of the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (Tagapangulo ng Pangasiwaan sa Pagpapaunlad ng Kalakhang Maynila)
        5. National Security Adviser (Tagapayo sa Pambansang Seguridad)
        6. Director-General of the National Economic and Development Authority (Direktor-Heneral ng Pambansang Pangasiwaan sa Kabuhayan at Pagpapaunlad)
        7. Presidential Adviser on Peace Process (Tagapayo ng Pangulo para sa Prosesong Pangkapayapaan)
        8. Lead Convenor of the National Anti-Poverty Commission Punong (Tagapagtanghal ng Pambansang Komisyon Laban sa Kahirapan)
        9. Chairman of the Commission on Filipinos Overseas (Tagapangulo ng Komisyon para sa mga Pilipino sa Ibayong Dagat)
        • Chief of Philippine National Police

        However, it must be noted that the appointments of all judges and the Ombudsman shall not be confirmed by the Commission on Appointments. Instead, they are recommended by the Judicial and Bar Council, and the President shall select from the recommendations.

        Click this link to Download:

        • Pending List of Appointees as of June 21, 2011
        pending_list_of_appointees_062111.pdf

         

        Sources: